IN THE INTERNATIONAL
The pandemic tested existing routines and practices of international cooperation, and they were found wanting, as states took unilateral actions that intensified the emergency. The dismal practice of vaccine nationalism threatened to slow recovery and intensify global inequalities. Repressive states, notably China and Russia, ran roughshod over international agreements and ignored global human rights norms. The need for new practices of inclusive and democratic multilateralism was clear, and civil society used the opportunity of the 75th anniversary of the United Nations to call for the opening up of international institutions to people’s participation.